There are 3 key elements of the contemporary land reform programme in Mozambique that are designed to contribute to poverty alleviation objectives. These are as follows:
These key elements are expressed within the policy and legislation developed during the late 1990s. In the next section we examine the process of policy and legislative development and the subsequent translation of these into the planning and programming instruments of central government.
- Strengthening of land tenure security for family sector producers.
The use of land as a productive resource is recognized as forming an integral part of the rural poors' survival strategies. In Mozambique, land and natural resource use by rural communities occupies a central position in their livelihoods, probably to a far greater extent than most other rural communities in the southern African region. By strengthening security of tenure for family sector producers it is hoped that people will invest more in the land that they already occupy, feel safe in extending the present areas used for production, feel able to defend their use of land from encroachment by private interests and will hence be able to produce more and get easier access to credit. It is recognised that a range of other inputs would also be required and that land tenure security in itself will not necessarily lead to increased economic activity and poverty reduction.
- Encouraging investment in the rural economy through the granting of private land concessions.
This is, to some extent, a return to the pre-independence system and in Zambézia has manifested a revival of old colonial concessions. By allowing private land concessions it is hoped that there will be increased investment in production and employment creation in the rural areas. Part of the programme of granting concessions involves the generation of a tax base in land rentals to the state, at various levels, to ensure future sustainability of the land management system.
- Establishment of partnerships between investors and rural communities.
This is the crucial element for bringing together the two elements mentioned above. By encouraging partnerships it is hoped that land tenure security of both communities and investors will be strengthened, mutually beneficial relationships will develop, leading to a better environment for investment by both outside investors and rural communities.